The main avoidable causes of blindness in children are:

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP), corneal scarring from Vitamin A deficiency, measles, conjunctivitis of the newborn, cancers including retinoblastoma, and the use of harmful traditional eye medicines. Treatable conditions include Congenital Cataract and Congenital Glaucoma, which may be hereditary. Unavoidable causes of blindness in children include structural defects of the eye present since birth (eg Microphthalmos), Retinal Dystrophies (which are often familial), and lesions of the optic nerves and/or brain, which can be caused by a range of conditions.

Amblyopia is a childhood condition, often called ‘lazy eye’, where the vision in one eye doesn’t develop properly. This can be caused by problems with the eye or both eyes, such as refractive errors, squint, or media opacities such as Cataract or corneal scarring.